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Amazon parrots
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A Red-spectacled Amazon upright and a Yellow-shouldered Amazon eating at Palmitos Park, Spain
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Psittacinae
Tribe: Arini
Genus: Amazona
Lesson, 1830

The Amazon parrots are about 30 species of parrots that comprise the genus Amazona. They are native to the New World, ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. Amazon parrots range in size from medium to large, and have relatively short, rather square tails. They are predominantly green, with accenting colors that are quite vivid in some species.

The taxonomy of the Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities listing only a single species (A. ochrocephala), and others splitting it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix).[1][2][3] The Yellow-faced Parrot, Alipiopsitta xanthops, was traditionally placed within the Amazon parrot genus, but recent research has shown that it is more closely related to the Short-tailed Parrot and species from the genus Pionus; as a result, it has been transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta.[4][5]

Two extinct species have been postulated, based on limited evidence.[6][7] They are the †Martinique Amazon (Amazona martinica)[8][9] and the †Guadeloupe Amazon (Amazona violacea).[6][10][11] Amazon parrots were described living on Guadeloupe by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre in 1667 and by Jean-Baptiste Labat in 1742, and they were called Psittacus violaceus at that time. Labat also described Amazon parrots living on Martinique. There are no specimens or remains of either island population, so their taxonomy may never be fully elucidated. Their status as separate species is unproven and they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species.[6]

Species of Amazon parrots in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial names[7] Image Description Range
Cuban Amazon
or Rose-throated Amazon
(Amazona leucocephala)
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28–33 cm (11–13 in) long, mostly green, white on face, pink throat, brownish on belly.[12] Cuba, The Bahamas, and Cayman Islands[13][14]
Yellow-billed Amazon
(Amazona collaria)
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28 cm (11 in) long, mostly green, white face markings and white forehead, blue forecrown, pink throat and upper breast, bluish primaries, yellow bill[15] Jamaica[16]
Hispaniolan Amazon
(Amazona ventralis)
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28–31 cm (11–12 in) long, mostly green, white forehead, blue flight feathers, maroon belly and red in the tail feathers.[17] Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands[18]
Puerto Rican Amazon
(Amazona vittata)
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28–30 cm (11–12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, white eyerings.[19] Archipelago of Puerto Rico[20]
Yellow-lored Amazon
(Amazona xantholora)
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Mostly green, blue on crown and yellow on sides of face, horn coloured beak Belize, Honduras, and Mexico[21][22]
White-fronted Amazon
(Amazona albifrons)
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25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green, white forehead with blue on the crown, red on sides of face. Sexual dimorphism: males have bright red feathers on their shoulders, while females have green shoulders Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico; Nicaragua[23][24]
Black-billed Amazon
(Amazona agilis)
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25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green with small patches of red on the wing and sometimes flecked with red on the head, black beak[25] Jamaica[26]
Tucuman Parrot
(Amazona tucumana)
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31 cm (12 in) long, mostly green with feathers of the upper-body being green with black margins. Red plumage on forehead and fore-crown, and the red does not extend around the white eye-rings. Red primary wing feathers with no red at the bend of the wing. They have orange thighs and red at base of a green tail.[27] Argentina and Bolivia[28][29]
Red-spectacled Amazon
(Amazona pretrei)
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32 cm (12.5 in) long, mostly green with a variable extent of red on forehead, lores, and around eyes. The eyerings are white and the bill is yellowish. Red on the bend of the wings with blue tips to secondary and primary wing feathers.[30] Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay[31]
Red-crowned Amazon
(Amazona viridigenalis)
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33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, bright red forehead and crown, dark blue streaks behind the eyes, and light green cheeks, less red on the crown of the female and the juvenile[32] Native to Mexico, introduced to Puerto Rico and United States[33]
Lilac-crowned Amazon
(Amazona finschi)
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30.5–34.5 cm (12–14 in) long, mostly green, a maroon forehead, and violet-blue crown[34] NW to SW Mexico[34][35][36]
Red-lored Amazon
(Amazona autumnalis)
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32–35 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, red forehead and in some subspecies yellow cheeks (sometimes with red spots), blue crown Central and South America[37][38]
Blue-cheeked Amazon
or Dufresne's Amazon
(Amazona dufresniana)
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34 cm (13.5 in) long, mostly green, with blue cheeks French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, and possibly in northern Brazil[39][40]
Red-browed Amazon
(Amazona rhodocorytha)
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35 cm (14 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to browning-purple on the crown, orange lores and yellow below lores, bluish to violet cheeks and throat.[41] East Brazil[42][43]
Red-tailed Amazon
(Amazona brasiliensis)
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37 cm (14.4 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to purple on the crown. Blue throat, cheeks and over ears. Red in tail feathers[44] SE Brazil[42][45]
Festive Amazon
(Amazona festiva)
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Mostly green, red forehead, deep blue outer wing feathers, red rump Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela[46][47]
Yellow-shouldered Amazon
(Amazona barbadensis)
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33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, white forehead and lores, yellow crown and ear-coverts, bare white eye rings. Yellow chin and shoulders. Some red and dark blue in the wing feathers.[48] Netherlands Antilles, Venezuela[49]
Blue-fronted Amazon
(Amazona aestiva)
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38 cm (15 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and yellow on the face Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina.[50][51]
Yellow-crowned Amazon
(Amazona ochrocephala)
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33–38 cm (13–15 in) long, mostly green, extent of the yellow on the head varies between subspecies. South America and Panama[52][53]
Yellow-naped Amazon
(Amazona auropalliata)
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Mostly green, yellow band across the lower nape and hindneck Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.[54][55]
Yellow-headed Amazon
(Amazona oratrix)
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35–38 cm (14–15 in) long, mostly green, yellow head[56] Belize, Guatemala, Mexico.[57]
Kawall's Amazon
(Amazona kawalli)
image requested
Large and mostly green. White skin at base of bill Brazil[58][59]
Orange-winged Amazon
(Amazona amazonica)
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33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, blue and yellow feathers on head which varies in extent between individuals. The upper mandible is partly horn coloured and partly dark-grey. It has orange feathers in the wings and tail South America[60][61]
Scaly-naped Amazon
(Amazona mercenaria)
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Mostly green Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela[62][63]
Mealy Amazon
(Amazona farinosa)
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38–41 cm (15–16 in) long, mostly green. The extent of yellow and green on the forehead and crown varies between the subspecies. Mexico, and Central and South America[64][65]
Vinaceous Amazon
(Amazona vinacea)
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30 cm (12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, bluish nape, vinous-maroon breast[66] Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay[67]
St. Lucia Amazon
(Amazona versicolor)
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43 cm (17 in) long, mostly green, blue face and forehead, red breast becoming maroon and mottled on lower breast and belly[68] Saint Lucia[69]
Red-necked Amazon
(Amazona arausiaca)
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40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and face, white bare eyerings, red patch on throat (sometimes absent)[70] Dominica[71]
St. Vincent Amazon
(Amazona guildingii)
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40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, multi-colored amazon parrot with a yellowish white, blue and green head, greenish-bronze upperparts, grey feet, orange irises, and violet blue-green wings and tail feathers. There is a yellow-brown morph and a less common green morph.[72] Caribbean island of Saint Vincent in the Lesser Antilles[73]
Imperial Amazon
(Amazona imperialis)
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45 cm (18 in) long, mostly green, purple neck, green-tipped red tail and purple below.[74] Dominica[74]

See also

References

  1. ^ Binford, L. (1989). "A distributional survey of the birds of the Mexican state of Oaxaca." Ornithological Monographs. 43: 1–418.
  2. ^ Monroe, B, Monroe, JR & Howell T. (1966). "Geographic variation in Middle American parrots of the Amazona ochrocephala complex". Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, no. 34. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.
  3. ^ For further on this issue, see the Yellow-crowned Amazon taxonomic section
  4. ^ Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) "Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus Amazona (Psittacidae, Aves) and confirmation of the genus Salvatoria (Ribeiro, 1920)." Brazilian Journal of Genetics 18:623–628.
  5. ^ Russello, M A & Amato, G (2004) "A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30: 421–437.
  6. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 0670817972 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help). 
  7. ^ a b "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.022)". www.zoonomen.net. 2009-04-02. 
  8. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona martinicana. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  9. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona martinica". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  10. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona violacea. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  11. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona violacea". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  12. ^ Collar, p. 467
  13. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona leucocephala. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  14. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona leucocephala". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 8 August 2008. 
  15. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona collaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  16. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona collaria. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  17. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona ventralis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  18. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona ventralis. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  19. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona vittata". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  20. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona vittata. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  21. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona xantholora. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  22. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona xantholora". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  23. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona albifrons. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  24. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona albifrons". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  25. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona agilis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  26. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona agilis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  27. ^ Forshaw (2006). plate 108.
  28. ^ BirdLife International 2005. Amazona tucumana. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  29. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona tucumana". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  30. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona pretrei". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  31. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona pretrei. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  32. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona viridigenalis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  33. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona viridigenalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  34. ^ a b Collar, p. 469
  35. ^ BirdLife International (2006). Amazona finschi. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  36. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona finschi". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  37. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona autumnalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  38. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona autumnalis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  39. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona dufresniana. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  40. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona dufresniana". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  41. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona rhodocorytha". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  42. ^ a b Collar, p. 470
  43. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona rhodocorytha. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  44. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona brasiliensis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  45. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona brasiliensis. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  46. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona festiva. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  47. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona festiva". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  48. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona barbadensis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  49. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona barbadensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  50. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona aestiva. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12-08-2008.
  51. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona aestiva". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  52. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona ochrocephala. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  53. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona ochrocephala". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  54. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona auropalliata". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  55. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona auropalliata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 15-08-2008.
  56. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona oratrix". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  57. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona oratrix. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 15-08-2008.
  58. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona kawalli. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  59. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona kawalli". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  60. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona amazonica. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  61. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona amazonica". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  62. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona mercenaria. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  63. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona mercenaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  64. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona farinosa. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  65. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona farinosa". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  66. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona collaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  67. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona vinacea. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  68. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona versicolor". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  69. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona versicolor. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  70. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona arausiaca". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  71. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona arausiaca. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  72. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona guildingii". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  73. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona guildingii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  74. ^ a b "Species factsheet: Amazona imperialis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 

Bibliography

External links

Template:Amazon parrots

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