FANDOM


Mirandornithes
Temporal range: Oligocene-Recent, 25–0 Ma
Lightmatter flamingo
Podiceps cristatus 2 (Lukasz Lukasik)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Columbea
(unranked): Mirandornithes
Sangster, 2005
Orders

Mirandornithes (name coined by Sangster (2005)[1]) is a clade that consists of flamingos and grebes. Many scholars use the term Phoenicopterimorphae for the superorder containing flamingoes and grebes.[2][3]

Taxonomy

Determining the relationships of both groups has been problematic. Flamingos had been placed with numerous branches within Neognathae, such as ducks and storks. The grebes had been placed with the loons. However recent studies have confirmed these two branches as sister groups.[4][5][6][7][8][9][3]

Both primitive phoenicopteriformes and their closest relatives, the grebes, were highly aquatic. This indicates that the entire mirandornithe group evolved from aquatic, probably swimming ancestors.[6]

Species

Species of Phoenicopterus in TiF order
Family

Subfamily • Tribe

Genus

Author

Common name Ref
  Phoenicopteridae

Phoenicopterus
Linnaeus, 1758
Flamingo TiF
Species (author[s])
Common name(s)
Image
Measurements Distribution map
Status
Other links

Chilean Flamingo

Phoenicopterus chilensis
Molina, 1782
Chilenischer Flamingo Tiergarten Bernburg 2007









Decrease2
Lower risk,
NT
Status iucn3.1 NT

TiF[10]
IUCN[11]

Greater Flamingo

Flamingo
Phoenicopterus roseus
Pallas, 1811
Phoenicopterus roseus (Walvis bay)









Increase2
Lower risk,
LC
Status iucn3.1 LC

TiF[10]
IUCN[12]

American Flamingo

Phoenicopterus ruber
Linnaeus, 1758
Flamenco in São Paulo Zoo 05









Increase2
Lower risk,
LC
Status iucn3.1 LC

TiF[10]
IUCN[13]

Synapomorphies

According to Mayr (2004) and Sangster (2005) there are at least twelve distinct morphological synapomorphies that are unique to this clade:[1]

  1. "At least the fourth to seventh cervical vertebrae strongly elongate, with processus spinosus forming a marked ridge.
  2. Humerus with a marked oval depression at insertion site of musculus scapulohumeralis cranialis.
  3. At least 23 presacral vertebrae.
  4. At least four thoracic vertebrae fused to a notarium.
  5. Distal end of ulna with marked oval depression radialis.
  6. Phalanx proximalis digiti majoris very elongate and narrow craniocaudally.
  7. Distal rim of condylus medialis of tibiotarsus distinctly notched.
  8. Pars acetabularis of musculus iliotibialis lateralis absent.
  9. Pars caudalis of musculus caudofemoralis absent.
  10. Wing with 12 primaries
  11. Left arteria carotis reduced or absent.
  12. Eggs covered with a chalky layer of amorphous calcium phosphate."


Distribution

Flamingos are found in southern US, Mexico, Caribbean, northern South America, southern South America, southern Europe, Africa, and Asia. Flamingos became extinct in Australia.[19]

Horned Grebe is one of the widest ranging grebes — it breeds in Iceland, northern United Kingdom and Scandinavia in Europe, and throughout the centre of Russia to the Pacific coast, southern Alaska (USA), in most of western and central Canada, and in northern USA. Wintering grounds occur further south, including the North Sea, Adriatic Sea, Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, the coast Japan, Korea and China, and the USA down to California on the Pacific coast and Texas on the Atlantic coast (del Hoyo et al. 1992).[20][21]

Red-necked is found in Western Canada, northwest US, eastern Russia, northeast China, northern Japan. Winters in Japan, Korea, Aleutian Islands to California, eastern US, south to Florida; Eastern Europe, west and west-central Asia and wintering from North Sea, Black Sea and Caspian Sea (del Hoyo, et al.)[20][22]

Pied-billed Grebe is generally a New World species, found throughout North, Central and South America, but as of lately (recently as 2007), in the United Kingdom, there are have been 37 sightings; appearing generally in October to January.[23] One bird in England bred with a Little Grebe, producing hybrid young.[24]


References

  1. ^ a b Sangster, G. (July 2005). "A name for the flamingo-grebe clade". Ibis. 147 (3): 612–615. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.2005.00432.x. 
  2. ^ Joel Cracraft; et al. "Justifications of names for higher taxa" (PDF). 
  3. ^ a b Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (12 December 2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. PMC 4405904Freely accessible. PMID 25504713. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. 
  4. ^ Tuinen, Van; Butvill, M.; Kirsch, D.B.; Hedges, S.B. (7 July 2001). "Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds". Proc. R. Soc. B. 268 (1474): 1345–1350. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1679. 
  5. ^ Chubb, A.L. (January 2004). "New nuclear evidence for the oldest divergence among neognath birds: The phylogenetic utility of ZENK (i)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (1): 140–151. PMID 15022765. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00159-3. 
  6. ^ a b Mayr, G. (February 2004). "Morphological evidence for sister group relationship between flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae) and grebes (Podicipedidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 140 (2): 157–169. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00094.x. 
  7. ^ Fain, M.G. Houde (November 2004). "Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds". Evolution. 58 (11): 2558–2573. PMID 15612298. doi:10.1554/04-235. 
  8. ^ Ericson, J.I.; Anderson, P.G.P.; Britton, C.L.; Elzanowski, T.; Johansson, A.; Kllersj, U.S.; Ohlson, M.; Parsons, T.J. (22 December 2006). "Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils". Biology Letters. 2 (4): 543–547. PMC 1834003Freely accessible. PMID 17148284. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523. 
  9. ^ Hackett, S.J.; et al. (27 June 2008). "A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history". Science. 320 (5884): 1763–1768. PMID 18583609. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. 
  10. ^ a b c Boyd, John (February 28, 2015). "Phoenicopteridae" (v. 2.64d ed.). 
  11. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoenicopterus chilensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  12. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoenicopterus roseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  13. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoenicopterus ruber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  14. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoeniconaias minor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  15. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoenicoparrus jamesi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  16. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phoenicoparrus andinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  17. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Podiceps nigricollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  18. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Podilymbus podiceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Simpson & Day (1999). A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, 6th Edition. Penguin. ISBN 0-691-04995-5. 
  20. ^ a b del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
  21. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Podiceps auritus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  22. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Podiceps grisegena". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps". Grebes. British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  24. ^ Newton, Ian (2008). The Migration Ecology of Birds. London, UK: Academic Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-12-517367-4. 

External links

Hemipus picatus This article is part of Project Bird Taxonomy, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on every order, family and other taxonomic rank related to birds.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.