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Modern birds

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Modern birds
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Ostrich, a paleognath
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Dolphin Gull, a neognath
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
clade: Dinosauria
clade: Pennaraptora
clade: Paraves
clade: Averaptora
clade: Avialae
Class: Aves
Gadow, 1893[1]
Subgroups

Modern birds (subclass Neornithes) are the most recent common ancestor of all living birds (class Aves) and all its descendants.

Modern birds are characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth (ancient birds had teeth), the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. All birds have forelimbs modified as wings and most can fly, with some exceptions including ratites, penguins, and a number of diverse endemic island species. Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight. Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animal species; a number of bird species have been observed manufacturing and using tools, and many social species exhibit cultural transmission of knowledge across generations.

Many species of modern bird undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, and participate in social behaviours including cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Engagement in extra-pair copulations is common in some species; other species have breeding systems that are polygynous ("many females") or, rarely, polyandrous ("many males"). Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.

Taxonomy

Modern birds are divided into two superorders; the Palaeognathae (tinamous and flightless ratites like ostriches), and the wildly diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds. Depending on the taxonomic viewpoint, the number of species cited varies anywhere from 8,800 to 10,200 known living bird species in the world. It is generally agreed that the Neornithes evolved in the Cretaceous Period and that the split between the Palaeognathae and Neognathae, and then the split between Galloanserae (fowl) and the other Neognathae, occurred before the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event (the earliest fossil remains confidently referred to the Neornithes come from the Hauterivian age Gallornis straeleni[2]), but there are different opinions about whether the radiation of the remaining neognathes occurred before or after the extinction of the other dinosaurs.[3] This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence, with molecular dating suggesting a Cretaceous radiation and fossil evidence supporting a Tertiary radiation. Attempts made to reconcile the molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial.[3][4]

The classification of modern birds is a contentious issue. Sibley & Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds (1990) is a landmark work on the classification of birds, although frequently debated and constantly revised. A preponderance of evidence seems to suggest that the modern bird orders constitute accurate taxa. However, scientists are not in agreement as to the relationships between the orders; evidence from modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem but no strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil and molecular evidence is providing an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders. See also: Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy and dinosaur classification.

In traditional classification, the Neornithes also included a third superodrder, the Odontognathae, containing advanced toothed birds from the Cretaceous, like Hesperornis and Ichthyornis.[5] This superorder is likely paraphyletic, and fall outside the crown group birds. It is not entirely clare whether the Palaeognathae too are paraphyletic, or represent a primitve grade of birds.[6]

Classification

 
Aves 

Archaeopteryx


 Pygostylia 

Confuciusornithidae


 Ornithothoraces 

Enantiornithes


 Ornithurae 

Hesperornithiformes


 Neornithes 

Palaeognathae


 Neognathae 

Galloanserae



Neoaves








Basal bird phylogeny showing Neornithes and extinct ancient groups (simplified after Chiappe, 2007[7])
Neoaves Cladogram

Cladogram showing the most recent classification of Neoaves, based several phylogenetic studies.

This is a list of the taxonomic orders in the subclass Neornithes, or modern birds. The list of birds gives a more detailed summary of these, including families.

Subclass Neornithes

Note: This list is mostly based on Boyd's Taxonomy in Flux[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. A radically different classification based on molecular data has been developed (the so-called Sibley-Monroe classification or Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy). Some of the proposals of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy has influenced taxonomic thinking considerably, with the Galloanserae proving well-supported by recent molecular, fossil and anatomical evidence.[3] With increasingly good evidence, it has become possible to test some major proposals of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, with favorable results (see for example Charadriiformes, Gruiformes or Caprimulgiformes). However, many proposals of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy are now discarded by most scientists, such as the lumping of many unrelated orders into a greatly enlarged Ciconiiformes.

Phylogeny

File:Neornithes.jpg

Basal divergences of modern birds based on the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy.

Neornithes  
Palaeognathae 

Struthioniformes



Tinamiformes



 Neognathae 
 

Neoaves


Galloanserae 

Anseriformes


    

Galliformes






Footnotes

  1. ^ Brands, Sheila (2009)
  2. ^ Hope, Sylvia (2002)
  3. ^ a b c Ericson, P. G. P., et al. (2006)
  4. ^ Brown, J., et. al (2007)
  5. ^ Romer, A. S. & Parsons, T. S. (1985): The Vertebrate Body. (6th ed.) Saunders, Philadelphia.
  6. ^ McDowell, Sam (1948). "The bony palate of birds" (PDF). The Auk 65 (4): 520–549. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v065n04/p0520-p0549.pdf. 
  7. ^ Chiappe, L. M. (2007)
  8. ^ John H. Boyd III (July 6, 2011). "PALEOGNATHS and ANSERIFORMES Ratites, Tinamous, and Waterfowl". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List1.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  9. ^ John H. Boyd III (September 26, 2011). "Galliformes Landfowl". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List2.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  10. ^ John H. Boyd III (October 15, 2011). "METAVES I: Columbimorphae, Eurypygimorphae". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List3.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  11. ^ John H. Boyd III (December 11, 2011). "METAVES II: Cypselomorphae, Steatornithiformes, Nyctibiiformes, Podargiformes, Caprimulgiformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List4.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  12. ^ John H. Boyd III (August 25, 2011). "METAVES III: Apodiformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List5.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  13. ^ John H. Boyd III (October 14, 2011). "PELECANAE I: Musophagiformes, Gruiformes, Otidiiformes, Cuculiformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List6.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  14. ^ John H. Boyd III (November 12, 2011). "PELECANAE II: Musophagiformes and Aequornithes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List7.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  15. ^ John H. Boyd III (November 10, 2011). "CHARADRIIFORMES". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List8.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  16. ^ John H. Boyd III (January 26, 2012). "ACCIPITRIMORPHAE: Cathartiformes, Accipitriformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List9.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  17. ^ John H. Boyd III (October 15, 2011). "ANOMALOGONATES I: Coliiformes, Strigiformes, Leptosomiformes, Trogoniformes, Bucerotiformes, Coraciiformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List10.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  18. ^ John H. Boyd III (January 5, 2012). "ANOMALOGONATES II: Piciformes". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List11.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  19. ^ John H. Boyd III (January 8, 2012). "FALCONIFORMES & PSITTACIFORMES". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List12.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 
  20. ^ John H. Boyd III (August 3, 2011). "PASSERIFORMES I Acanthisitti, Eurylaimides". TiF Checklist. http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List13.html. Retrieved 30-03-2017. 

References




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